Predictive Policing: The Modernization of Historical Human Injustice


  1. Ryan Gallagher, FBI Files Unlock History Behind Clandestine Cellphone Tracking Tool, Slate (Feb. 15, 2013),
  2. New York Civil Liberties Union, NYPD Has Used Stingrays More Than 1,000 Times Since 2008, ACLU (Feb. 11, 2016),
  3. Cyrus Farivar, County Sheriff Has Used Stingray Over 300 Times With No Warrant, (May 24, 2015), Ars Technica,
  4. NYCLU, supra note 2.
  5. David Robinson & Logan Koepke, Stuck in a Pattern: Early Evidence on ‘Predictive Policing’ and Civil Rights, Upturn (August 2016),
  6. Privacy SOS, Pre-crime Policing Software Determines Your Threat Level Based Off of Your Social Media Use, Criminal Record, Privacy SOS, (Jan. 11, 2016),
  7. Justin Jouvenal, The New Way Police Are Surveilling You: Calculating Your Threat ‘Score,’ (Jan. 10, 2016), Wash. Post,
  8. Privacy SOS, supra note 6.
  9. National Employment Law Project, Faulty FBI Background Checks for Employment: Correcting FBI Records Is Key to Criminal Justice Reform, (Dec. 8, 2015),
  10. Id.
  11. Jay Stanley, Eight Problems With Police ‘Threat Scores,’ ACLU (Jan. 13, 2016),
  12. PredPol, How Predictive Policing Works, (2015),
  13. David Robinson & Logan Koepke, supra note 5.
  14. Alexandra Mateescu et al., Social Media Surveillance and Law Enforcement, Data & Civil Rights (Oct. 27, 2015),
  15. Sam Levin, ACLU Finds Social Media Sites Gave Data to Company Tracking Black Protesters, The Guardian (Oct. 11, 2016),
  16. Id.
  17. Id.
  18. See Jon Penney, Chilling Effects: Online Surveillance and Wikipedia Use, 31(1) Berkeley Technology L.J. (Apr. 27, 2016), and Elizabeth Stoycheff, Under Surveillance: Examining Facebook’s Spiral of Silence Effects in the Wake of NDS Internet Monitoring, 3(2) Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly (March 8, 2016).
  19. The following individuals serve on the task force: Cynthia Roseberry and Melinda Sarafa (co-chairs), Juval Scott, Robert Toale, Hanni Fakhoury, and William Wolf. Michael Pinard, a professor of law at the University of Maryland, is the task force reporter. Jumana Musa, NACDL senior privacy and national security counsel, is the staff person assigned to work with the group.

National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers

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